With the rise of Web fonts as well as affordable hosted Web font services and ready-made kits, typography is reclaiming its title as design queen, ruler of all graphic and Web design. At the same time, for far too many designers, the main concern about typography today seems to be aesthetic in nature. The problem is, we tend to use typography and lettering as two interchangeable terms, which they are not. A quick look at the “typography” tag on Dribbble reveals this trend. The allure of well-executed lettering — and, boy, I could spend hours just looking at lettering portfolios! — can affect the way we view typefaces, because both typography and lettering share common visual concepts. If we seek only the next most Beautiful Typeface™ all the time, this habit alone can drive us away from the functional role of typefaces and their advantages as versatile, reusable and flexible design systems. Moreover, we are often eager to try the latest OpenType feature, prettify our copy with discretionary ligatures, slap on partially executed CSS hyphenation, and then stare at our masterpiece in awe, unaware that anyone other than a typography geek couldn’t care less. Of course, reality hits right at the moment that the text has to be read and understood by normal people on a variety of devices, from the latest Retina laptops to 72-DPI cathode-ray-tube monitors with Windows XP to a range of sci-fi smartphones that can measure your blood pressure. Most articles on the Web are optimized for instant ingestion — does “reverse pyramid” sound familiar? Fast exchange of information is in the Internet’s nature and fits a reader’s short attention span. People visit websites and applications because they primarily seek information; rarely do they seek typographic pleasure. Don’t get me wrong: I love typographically creative headlines and decks that grab my attention — but at the same time, we can’t neglect the need for overall balance and legibility in body copy. Let’s start!
Seamlessly digesting written matter is possible only when the typography is well thought out and legibility is facilitated by a considered reading experience. As in other fields of design, before doing anything else we should conduct some research. In developing the habit of research, we will not only discover valuable data, but also develop our ability to quickly jump into the reader’s shoes, shifting focus from our worst enemy — our own ego (which I play tug-of-war with all the time). As you are most likely aware, the main components of a digital experience are content, context and the user. You probably address all three in almost every design project. But if we focus exclusively on typography within each of these components, then we’d find a handful of assessment methods and some considerations that would be useful to take into account and that would ultimately improve the overall reading experience.
The best way to start a typographic design project is by reading the content. Seriously, every designer is intelligent enough to evaluate who this content is for and what it should be communicating. But apart from rating the quality of the content and listing its structural elements, we can also gauge comprehensibility, reading time, purpose and, finally, lifespan.
Upon reading the content, think about the structures or elements you have encountered and list them. Use the list as a starting point for a simple style guide. Apart from the normal paragraphs, headings and editorial accessories, you’ll find other — often overseen — elements, such as areas of emphasis, quotations, emphases within quotations and, very important these days, data tables and figure captions. Your perfect font should have enough family members to cover all of these elements. In plain hypertextese, make sure to cover all HTML elements. At this point, you could even create sample HTML and CSS files containing all of the required elements and rules and save it as Project-Typography.html. As you can probably guess, this file will be the foundation of the project’s typographic system and will come in handy when you start designing responsive breakpoints.
Reading rates range anywhere from under 100 words per minute to a few thousand; most adults read between 200 and 250 words per minute. We can calculate the reading time for any given text quite easily by dividing the number of words by 250. If sample content for your project is available, simply throw it into a local installation of your favorite CMS and run it through a simple script to estimate reading time. Depending on the situation, estimating reading time can help us determine the spacing within paragraphs and establish just the right rhythm and reading pace. If the reading time is long, we could break the text into smaller parts or simply introduce a pull quote at a strategic point, where it would double as a milestone.
Many readability tests provide an estimate of the school grade needed by the reader to understand the text, and knowing such parameters is useful. For example, if the matter is complex, you could probably introduce some editorial devices to keep the reader on track, or accommodate a greater number of footnotes with their own set of accessories. Furthermore, when you are collaborating with a copywriter to tweak content and typography, these tools will make it easier to track differences between versions. One such test is the Automated Readability Index (ARI). ARI focuses on the number of characters, words and sentences, thereby making it useful for real-time monitoring. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level test, on the other hand, focuses on syllables rather than characters, thus making it somewhat more processor-intensive for real-time assessments. Another valuable test is Flesch Reading Ease. It is calculated according to words, sentences and syllables; the resulting score helps you determine the level of complexity of content. Most major languages have their own version. Although this tool is new to some of us in Web design, textbook publishers and government agencies have been using it for years to gauge the complexity of learning materials for different grade levels. Calculating the reading ease score manually for each piece of content would be an obvious sign of masochism, so I suggest checking out the handy Article Readability Stats, a PHP script that we at Creative Nights developed for our own projects.
If we step out of typography for a moment into the field of content strategy (the discipline of planning and governing content and of defining editorial processes) and information architecture (the discipline of organizing and describing content), we can anticipate some potential issues. Thinking about the content’s lifecycle protects us from the urge to typeset according to the latest trend. The next time an article is republished, we can prevent the editor’s rage from seeing leftover styles that weren’t removed in preparation for a redesign. Category labels — typically defined by an information architect — can make the Web designer’s life miserable, because the space in a navigation bar or column is limited. I’d bet that at some point in their career, every Web designer has tried to rename or shorten category names in order to fit the available space. Of course, we could always reduce the font size or choose a condensed type, but if all else fails, we talk to the information architect to find a solution on their end. Apart from articles, we must also typeset form labels, instructional copy, small print, interactive elements (such as buttons and links) and other text that clarifies tasks. All of this tiny copy is referred to as microcopy, and it is a fundamental ingredient in effective interaction design.
With recent developments in Web standards, designers are now building websites that are getting closer and closer to the ideal of “One Web,” accessible to everyone and everywhere. Even though achieving such universality with all types of projects is difficult, we know that mobile doesn’t just mean browsing the Web on a smartphone while on the go. We also know that tablets are used to give presentations, to check Twitter during breakfast or to read articles while sitting on the toilet (anyone who neglects this fact doesn’t understand the needs of users). The screen real estate of the coming generation of laptops puts a 96-DPI 30-inch desktop monitor to shame. We admire the Web’s universality, but at the same time we should be aware of the diversity of users and devices.